Saturday, March 14, 2020
Nuclear Fission Versus Nuclear Fusion Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion both are nuclear phenomena that release large amountsÃ of energy, but they are different processes which yield different products. Learn what nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are and how you can tell them apart. Nuclear Fission Nuclear fission takes place when anÃ atoms nucleus splits into two or more smaller nuclei. These smaller nuclei are called fission products. Particles (e.g., neutrons, photons, alpha particles) usually are released, too. This isÃ an exothermic process releasing the kinetic energy of the fission products and energy in the form of gamma radiation. The reason energy is released is because the fission products are more stable (less energetic) than the parent nucleus. Fission may be considered a form of element transmutation since changing the number of protons of an element essentially changes the element from one into another. Nuclear fission may occur naturally, as in the decay of radioactive isotopes, or it can be forced to occur in a reactor or weapon. Nuclear Fission Example: 23592U 10n Ã¢â â 9038Sr 14354Xe 310n Nuclear Fusion Nuclear fusion is a process in which atomic nuclei are fused together to form heavier nuclei. Extremely high temperatures (on the order of 1.5 x 107Ã °C) can force nuclei together so the strong nuclear force can bond them. Large amounts of energy are released when fusion occurs. It may seem counterintuitive that energy is released both when atoms split and when they merge. The reason energy is released from fusion is that the two atoms have more energy than a single atom. A lot of energy is required to force protons close enough together to overcome the repulsion between them, but at some point, the strong force that binds them overcomes the electrical repulsion. When the nuclei are merged, the excess energy is released. Like fission, nuclear fusion can also transmute one element into another. For example, hydrogen nuclei fuse in stars to form the element helium. Fusion is also used to force together atomic nuclei to form the newest elements on the periodic table. While fusion occurs in nature, its in stars, not on Earth. Fusion on Earth only occurs in labs and weapons. Nuclear Fusion Examples The reactions which take place in the sun provide an example of nuclear fusion: 11H 21H Ã¢â â 32He 32He 32He Ã¢â â 42He 211H 11H 11H Ã¢â â 21H 01Ã ² Distinguishing Between Fission and Fusion Both fission and fusion release enormous amounts of energy. Both fission and fusion reactions can occurÃ in nuclear bombs. So, how can you tell fission and fusion apart? Fission breaks atomic nuclei into smaller pieces. The starting elements have a higher atomic number than that of the fission products. For example, uranium can fission to yield strontium and krypton.Fusion joins atomic nuclei together. The element formed has more neutrons or more protons than that of the starting material. For example, hydrogen and hydrogen can fuse to form helium.Fission occurs naturally on Earth. An example is the spontaneous fission of uranium, which only happens if enough uranium is present in a small enough volume (rarely). Fusion, on the other hand, does not occur naturally on Earth. Fusion occurs in stars.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Minnesota v. Dickerson 1993 - Case Study Example The event occurred on November 9, 1989, while exiting an apartment building with a history of cocaine trafficking, Timothy Dickerson, a patron walking in the streets, spotted police officers and turned to walk in the opposite direction. Due to this hastiness, the law officials commanded Dickerson to stop, in suspicious of him running around and eventually got to him. On the intent of suspicion, the officer discovered a lump, which he belied was some sort of a leisure drug. Upon further investigation, that suspicious was true. Dickerson was charged with possession of an illegal substance. However, his lawyers argued that there was no valid cause for the officers to conduct this search. Afterall, Dickerson panicked when he saw officials, something that a natural human being is inclined to do when he sees authority. Dickerson pleaded the trial court not to use the possession of cocaine in the court, but was rejected. This case become a supersession to allow officials to lawfully pat dow n a suspect since no element of invasion of privacy has been violated. In his defense to appeal his conviction, Dickerson claimed that the search violated the Fourth AmendmentÃ¢â¬â¢s prohibition of unreasonable searches, as he pleaded it exceeded the limits of a permissible as outlined in Terry vs Ohio. As evident, the Supreme Court reaffirmed that police mat still frisk a patron based on suspicious reasonable search. The searchÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to find weapons, and the officials may seize any items found in any search which is evident. The court made a very important ruling which became evident in future cases. In essence, the court ruled that a detection of contraband during a lawful patdown is legal, even though it does not require a warrant. Due to this ruling, warrantless seizures became permissible. However, the court also pointed out that the Court also concluded that law officials tackling Dickerson stepped outside the
Monday, February 10, 2020
Applying a reading as a lens - Essay Example Forty years on in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, men can be viewed through the same lens once considered only for women; todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËidealÃ¢â¬â¢ spectator may be female, looking at the nudity or semi-nudity of a man. The term nudity rather than nakedness is intentionally used here in light of BergerÃ¢â¬â¢s reference to the dichotomy between nakedness and nudity (), wherein if a person is naked they maintain self but to be nude that person becomes an object on display for the satisfaction of others. The depiction of the male in (Fig.1) is nude not naked and is an object for the desire of women and men. I say men, because such an image would also appeal to men whose sexual preference is for other men; I say men because the same image would appeal to hegemonic men who desire the same muscled physique as that paraded in the photograph. The author of this advertisement has considered his audience, his spectators, through a very wide lens and has been able to present an image that is exhibited in such a way as to allure the largest possible number of voyeurs. He has turned a man rather than a women Ã¢â¬Ëinto and object Ã¢â¬â and most particularly an object of vision: a sightÃ¢â¬â¢ (Berger ). His visual representation provides evidence of his way of seeing what his intended audience wants to see; in other words, in his mind, through his lens he has defined his audience. Through his lens he sees one primary audience Ã¢â¬â one that is driven by sexual desires, which by definition transgresses all boundaries of gender. While the creator of this image has determined an image of his audience, the viewer can at the same time determine a picture of the creator. As a viewer looking at this photographic advertisement, I see it as having been created by somebody that understands how human nature is driven by sexuality and that in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world of equality and desire for perfection, such sexuality can be enticed by a male body. If the same advertisement pre sented a female body the creator would more likely lose a percentage of his spectators Ã¢â¬â homosexual males. I see a creator who is astute in selection of person for the image because it is that of the famous footballer and metrosexual David Beckham, which provides additional fodder for enticement. Fig.1 Calvin Klein What is particularly worthy of mention in this advertisement is the way in which the eyes of the image are looking directly at his spectators, as if to talk without speaking, knowing they are there looking at him in the same way that for Berger men look at women. In paintings discussed by Berger too the women rarely looked out to their audience but instead looked away or down (). Another difference between this photograph and the portrayal of women in European nude paintings is that women were exposed as submissive (Berger )wherein here the connotations are far from submissive; instead we get a sense of brazen assertiveness, a kind of Ã¢â¬Ëcome and get me if you dareÃ¢â¬â¢ impression. There seems to be a fine line between this advertisement in fact, and soft pornography and the creator is inviting his spectators to a voyeuristic screening. While the body is displayed for its audience and to appeal to the sexuality of that audience, it still has much to do with the manÃ¢â¬â¢s own sexuality, unlike the same picture of a female displayed in the same way. There is no attempt to provide the spectator with a sense of ownership (as was the intent of female nudes) by minimizing the manÃ¢â¬â¢
Thursday, January 30, 2020
International Marketing Essay These are the factors which the business counterparts should look into seriously. Other thing that important for Secret Recipe before enter the new market in UAE, they also should concern about the Microenvironment. In this paper, we found some strength and opportunity of Secret Recipe such as good brand name as the strength and certification of Ã¢â¬Å"HalalÃ¢â¬ which Secret Recipe has can be the opportunity for them to enter the market, because UAE is a Muslim country so certification of Ã¢â¬Å"HalalÃ¢â¬ is very important if they want to enter UAE market. As a leading and largest cafe chain in Malaysia, with Halal certification awarded by Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM), Secret Recipe is committed to continue to adhere to the standards of preparation of all food and processing plant in the restaurant in accordance to the regulatory guidelines including HACCP and VHM guidelines. In a short period of thirteen years, Secret Recipe has experienced a rapid growth of over 250 cafes throughout the region. Now, Secret Recipe continuously strives to surpass its own accomplishments and to be recognized as a leader in the industry. . 1 BACKGROUND amp; SITUATION ANALYSIS Secret Recipe is a cafe chain which made up from different stakeholders. The stakeholders are Secret RecipeÃ¢â¬â¢s shareholders, customers, government, employees, activist, media and supplier. Secret Recipe has quite a lot of franchises in Asia market but only has one franchise in Middle East market which is Pakistan. In order to penetrate in-depth into Middle East mark et, Secret Recipe decided to open a new franchise in new Middle East country which will be in United Arab Emirates (UAE). In recent years, UAE has become one of the developed countries. It can be proved by its natural resources such as oil and gas. Other than that, service, tourism, trade have become their mainstay as well. However, to observe more about what factors has been influencing in their development, PEST analysis has been given. 2. 0 PEST ANALYSIS 2. 1 Political Factor By starting a new business in UAE, company should take extra precaution on the political issue of the country. The company needs to comply with trade rules which have been implemented by government. One of the rules is the company has to know exactly what kind of products or services that will be marketed. Besides that, there is an excess of politics that existed in the UAE; where government highly focused on their economy and political stability which also excites a lot of FDI in the country these can be seen from the pace of development that paralleled with the number of foreign workers in the country. 2. 2 Economic Factor UAE is a high income country where it economy is the world 33 largest according to the World Bank. Figure 1 Based on the figure 1, the GDP in UAE growth rapidly from year 1999 to 2008 but decline in year 2009 because of the world financial crisis but it recover rapidly from -2. 7% to 3. 2%. Figure 2 Based on the figure 2, the PPP of UAE also growth rapidly from year 1999 to 2010. As the GDP and PPP of UAE continually growth which may benefit to Secret Recipe because it show that the consumer tend to spend more. 2. 3 Social Factor The population of the UAE is about four million while the population growth rate is 3. 282%. While the primary language usage in the country is English, but there are some other languages which also can be used. In term of religion, the majority population in the UAE are Muslim, however in the recent time Christianity has grown in popularity paralleled with the number of foreigner in the country. It will be opportunity for Secret Recipe, because both of the home and host country have some similarities. So it will be easier for Secret Recipe to enter the market. 2. 4 Technology Factor In term of technology, UAE is technically advanced and it is vastly become one of the leaders in technological field. It can be seen from the internet users in UAE, there are a total of 78% (CIA, 2009) of population active in the internet network. Additionally, UAE owned many of state-of-the-art infrastructures and buildings like Burj al Arab which is known as the most luxurious hotel. 3. 0 MICRO ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS 3. 1 Strength and Opportunity Secret Recipe was established in 1997. These 14 years of experience provide a good benchmark in standard and a strong brand advantages. Secret recipe has a 14 yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ worth of good history and experience in its culinary adventure. They gain a lot of recognition through awards and achievement not only in Malaysia but overseas as well. These strengthen brand power significantly. Furthermore, the restaurant was certified Ã¢â¬Å"HalalÃ¢â¬ since it is first commence. So with such certification they have the upper hand of experience which mean they did not have to put much effort in adapting and expanding in countries like Indonesia or Pakistan, which practically means less money spend in adaptation and implementation in the Muslim environment like UAE. 3. 2 Weakness and Threat Although Secret Recipe got a lot overseas management experience, but it was the first time their enter UAE market where was quite different that others country because of the factor such as culture differences. Thus, it will be a challenge for Secret Recipe because they do not understand about the daily life culture. The competitors can be the most important threat for Secret Recipe, because the competitors firstly enter the market before Secret Recipe. It was definitely a threat for Secret Recipe because the competitors have more knowledge about the market in the UAE and they are more aware about the existing culture in the UAE. 4. 0 SELECTING TARGET MARKET (s) 4. 1 Market Segmentation The market segmentation will be based on demographic segmentation such as age and income where play a crucial role for a company. Although foods and beverages of Secret Recipe can be enjoy by every customer, different age and income customer would have different purchasing power and buying behavior. 4. 2 Target Market Table below shows variety of target markets. As a cafe and restaurant, the target market for Secret Recipe will be young marriage couple where able to consume with their own power and willing to try new product. Target Market| Typical Breakdown| Preferred Lifestyle| Teenager| * Age between 12-19 * Schooling students with no income| * Willing to spend * Willing to taste new product| Young Marriage Couple| * Age between 20-34 * Classified from medium to higher classes consumers| * More spending power * Stable disposable medium and above income * Willing to taste new product| Marriage Adults| * Age between 35-49 * Busy with work| * | | * | * Brand conscious and a bit brand loyalty| 4. 3 Market Positioning Secret Recipe has successfully built its branding and strengthened the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness through the promotion Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Every Bite Gives You MoreÃ¢â¬ . The below figures show the brand position of our main competitor Ã¢â¬â Gulnaz , Reem Al Bawadi and Bice. High perceived Quality and status Gulnaz Gulnaz Bice Bice Secret Recipe Secret Recipe Extensive personalized serviceExtensive service Reem Al Bawadi Reem Al Bawadi High priceLow price Low perceived Quality and status Basically, Secret Recipe promotes its product based on the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceived quality product and services with an affordable price. 5. 0 MODE OF ENTRY We suggest using franchising to open Secret Recipe in UAE. Franchising itself is a continuing relationship in which a franchisor provides a licensed privilege to the franchisee to do (Adam amp; Armstrong 2008). The reason why we choose franchising is because by using franchising the owner (franchisor) of secret recipe will offers assistance in organizing, training for workers, merchandising, marketing and managing in return for a monetary consideration. It is an advantage that we would get when using franchising as a mode of entry. The benefits will we get it obviously will greatly assist us in running our business franchise in the UAE. For example the franchisee does not need to do training for workers, but the franchisor who will do it all for franchisee. It is because every franchisor already has a certain standard that is owned by them. But by using franchising as a mode of entry, it requires that as franchisee have to pay royalties to the franchisor with the initial agreement was made by them. 6. 0 MARKETING STRATEGIES (4Ps) Price: For pricing, we suggest Price-Adjustment Strategies to account for differences in consumer segments and situation. In Price-Adjustment Strategy there are 3 ways to do such as segmented pricing, psychological pricing, discount pricing. For these points we would prefer to use discount pricing. Because of this is the first Secret Recipe in the UAE, so by giving discount it will attract interest from the consumer. Promotion: Because of the Secret Recipe will open in UAE is the first Secret Recipe in this country, so we suggest to using pull strategy into the promotion strategy. In pull strategy they can use mass media advertising to attract interest from consumers. Because of this is the first Secret Recipe in UAE they just inform consumers about the new product to build primary demand. Place: We suggest franchising as the mode of entry to make Secret Recipe in UAE; it is because in UAE there is no Secret Recipe. But to open Secret Recipe in UAE, there are some things that certainly need to be noticed first before starting this business. The most important thing to note is that UAE is a country that has a majority Muslim population, so they must ensure the services that offer is lawful. Product: Secret Recipe is a service that fits in UAE; this is because Secret Recipe is a restaurant that does not use pork on the menu offered, so it can be consumed by Muslim people. Because of this is the first Secret Recipe in UAE, so this will provide something new for people in the UAE to enjoy it. 7. 0 CONCLUSION Secret Recipe is suitable for UAE citizen where most of the citizens are Muslim and Secret RecipeÃ¢â¬â¢s foods are Ã¢â¬Å"HalalÃ¢â¬ . From the PEST, SWOT and 4Ps factors that we analysed, by using franchising as the mode of entry, we believe that Secret Recipe have huge potential to be success in UAE. 8. 0 REFERENCES Agri-Food Trade Service 2010, The United Arab Emirates Consumer Behaviour, Attitudes and Perceptions Toward Food and Products, Agri-Food Trade Service, viewed on 12 November 2011, http://www. ats. agr. gc. ca/afr/5661-eng. htm#e BBC 2011, United Arab Emirates Profile, BBC, viewed on 12 October 2011, http://www. bbc. co. k/news/world-middle-east-14703998 Central Intelligence Agency 2009, Country Comparison andÃ Internet users, The World Factbook, viewed 17th November 2011, https://www. cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2153rank. html Foreign amp; Commonwealth Office 2011, Middle East and North Africa, Foreign amp; Commonwealth Office, viewed on 12 October 2011, http://www. fco. gov. uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/middle-east-north-africa/united-arab-emirates Franchise Direct 2011, Coffee Franchise Industry Research Business Report I, viewed 17th November 2011, http://www. ranchisedirect. com/coffeefranchises/coffeefranchiseindustryresearchbusinessreporti/74/220 Go Eat Out 2007-2011, Secret Recipe, Go Eat Out, viewed on 12 October 2011, http://www. goeatout. com. my/Restaurants/Promotions/Details/View/PID/32994/Secret-Recipe-Every-Bite-Gives-You-More. aspx Info franchise 2006, franchise in United Arab Emirates, viewed 17th November 2011, http://www. infofranchise. com/detail. cfm? IdNotizia=8136amp;IdSezione=18amp;strKey=com Qindexmundi, United Emirates Arab Population Growth Rate, Qindexmundi, viewed on 12 November 2011, http://www. indexmundi. om/united_arab_emirates/population_growth_rate. html Research and markets 2011, analyzing retail in the UAE, viewed 17th November 2011, http://www. researchandmarkets. com/reports/541162/analyzing_food_retail_in_the_uae Secret Recipe 2011, Secret Recipe Franchise, Secret Recipe, viewed on 12 October 2011, http://secretrecipe. com. my/? store=36amp;webpage=243 Slideshare 2011, UAE presentation, viewed 17th November 2011, http://www. slideshare. net/suranivikas/uae-presentation Themanagmentguru 2011, PEST Analysis of MICE industry in Middle East, viewed 17th November 2011, http://themanagmentguru. logspot. com/2011/01/pest-analysis-of-mice-industry-in. html Time Out Dubai 2011, Restaurant, Time out Dubai, viewed on 12 October 2011, http://www. timeoutdubai. com/restaurants/reviews/8114-reem-al-bawadi Uaeinteract 2011, Political System, viewed 17th November 2011, http://www. uaeinteract. com/government/political_system. asp UK Essays 2011, UAE Economy, viewed 17th November 2011, www. ukessays. com/essays/economics/uae-economy. php Wikistreetfood 2009, Franchise: Secret Recipe, viewed 17th November 2011, http://www. wi kistreetfood. com/Franchise:Secret_Recipe . 0 APPENDICES Social Factor Actual Expenditure (US$) and Projected Growth (%) in the U. A. E by Product Type Source: Euromonitor, 2010 Figure 3 From the figure 3, we know that the spending behaviour of UAE nations based on product type. It shows that the UAE nations would like to spend a large amount of money in food and non-alcoholic beverages and it increase from year to year. So it will be the advantages for Secret Recipe to enter the market. Marketing Strategies People: People are one of the elements of service marketing mix. People define a service. In case of service marketing, people can make or break an organization. Thus many companies nowadays are involved into specially getting their staff trained in interpersonal skills and customer service with a focus towards customer satisfaction. Because we use Franchising as a mode of entry, so we do not have to think too much about it. Because by using Franchising, so the Franchisor that will do the recruitment of their workforce and provide job training in accordance with the standards held by the owner of the brand name of Secret Recipe (Franchisor). Process: Service process is the way in which a service is delivered to the end customer. A good service will make consumers feel good about what we offer to them. For process, it would be better if we can set up what the consumer want, so it will give an efficiency of time to the community in the UAE. Because UAE is a country that does not have long to rest, people in UAE really appreciate the time, so they will not waste time waiting for things. By providing a fast process, it will attract attention and interest of the community in the UAE. Physical Evidence: Physical Evidence is a very important element in Service Marketing Mix. This cannot deny, because everyone would want something that looks real is better than others. Secret Recipe is a restaurant, so we should have chairs, tables, and good food. But if only by having those things, its too general because this is a basic thing that a restaurant should have. To provide something more than our
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
It was a typical day as any other with the only exception that it was nearly 50 degrees in the middle of December. People were operating as they always due skating through their business day while they sip on their Starbucks and yell at someone on their cell phone. But hey, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the world we live in, blank stairs, exchanging un-pleasantryÃ¢â¬â¢s and so on and so forth. Kids like me sit at tables trying to make some kind of pointless conversation with an attractive female while we stair into their eyes trying to figure out which words will get you laid up with them the fastest. All is moving fine until your plan is interrupted. Not by your Ã¢â¬Å"gameÃ¢â¬ of course, never that, but by this bummy looking older man who decides to sit at the same table. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Do you need help with your chemistry homework?Ã¢â¬ He asks my potential prey and points to her chemistry book that has been opened to the same page for the past 20 minutes. He wears a look of confidence despite his tattered fashion and yellow teeth. Now I am not one too big on believing in stereotypes, however, I call it how I see it and he looked like a bum, point blank. He began to speak about the basics of chemistry while sipping on coffee heavily saturated in sweet and low. As he began to speak and shed light on this topic, he flipped the conversation to history and the lies weÃ¢â¬â¢ve all been told. Everything he was saying I was familiar with, however I could tell he was shocking the female that was sitting across from me. At this point I realized that she had become a lost cause for the moment since she was very enthralled by our new acquaintance. In the midst of the truths he was speaking, he rambled a great deal as if he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t mainta in a single thought long enough to fully explain it. He then began to denounce the importance of money, however he bragged about the diamonds from exotic countries that he owned. He carried a paper bag that was pretty full. As he began to dig in it to as if to prove himself, he pulled out so called skins from different animals around the world. They were supposedly worth a great deal of money and he was carrying them since he was awaiting a business meeting.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Body language is a form of non-verbal communication consisting of body pose, gestures, and eye movements. Humans send and interpret such signals subconsciously. Body language may provide clues as to the attitude or state of mind of a person. For example, it may indicate aggression, attentiveness, boredom, relaxed state, pleasure, amusement and intoxication among many other clues. ? Body language; Can effect how people think of you, Can reveal if sameone is lying to you, Can improve your overall comunication skills, Can turn you into a person people like, or dislike.Of all the body language facial expressions, the most important and powerful is the smile. A smile says I like you send conveys happiness warmth and confidince. We use facial expressions to get our points across in the right context. For example, your message would suffer if you were saying how angry you are with a huge smile. Eye is one of the most important nonverbal channels you have for communication and connecting wit h other people. Looking at a person acknowledges them and shows hat you are interested in them, particularly if you look in their eyes.When a person avoid from eye contact, they may be feeling insecure. They may also be lying and not want to be detected. A gesture is a non-vocal bodily movement intended to express meaning. They may be articulated with the hands, arms or body, and also include movements of the head We all give away hints as to our true feelings, through our movements and gestures. This is a list of examples of body language. 1 Gesture: Brisk, erect walk
Monday, January 6, 2020
Scope of the Issue A community is a combination of social units and systems that perform the major social functions relevant to meeting the needs of all individuals. The community selected for this resource analysis is Utica, New York. Utica is a moderately-sized city with a population estimated to be roughly 62,000 people. The specific area that is going to be focused on is a smaller neighborhood of the City of Utica that is known as Cornhill. Cornhill is what has been continuously considered as UticaÃ¢â¬â¢s most treacherous area to reside in. Cornhill is composed of the area between Eagle Street to the Memorial Parkway and from Oneida Street to Mohawk Street. Geographically speaking, it is a rather large area that takes up aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Gang violence is defined as a Ã¢â¬Å"criminal and non-political acts of violence committed by a group of people who regularly engage in criminal activity against innocent people. This term is also used to refer to the physical hostile interactions between two or more gangs. The term gang violence refers to two or more people organized to achieve a common objective who share a common identity. Gangs identify themselves with a common name or a signÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Gang violence,Ã¢â¬ ). There are a limited number of existing resources in Cornhill and the Utica, New York area for youthful gang members. There is one small non-profit organization, The Safe Haven, that was established for youth who were at-risk of joining a gang or currently active within a gang. It was created by a former Utica, New York youthful gang member who exited the gang lifestyle with guidance from a mentor (White, 2014). He is currently CASAC (Credentialed Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselor) in the State of New York (White, 2014). His wife is a forensic psychologist who assists him in running the operation (White, 2014). Together they work with at-risk inner city kids who struggle with poverty, live in hazardous neighborhoods, and experienc e the increasing